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Salmons, B., Lawson, J. S., Gunzburg, W. H.
Evidence is accumulating that one or more beta-retrovirus is associated with human breast cancer. Retroviruses can exist as an infectious (exogenous) virus or as a part of the genetic information of cells due to germline integration (endogenous). An exogenous virus with a genome that is highly homologous to mouse mammary tumour virus is gaining acceptance as possibly being associated with human breast cancer, and recently furnished evidence is discussed in this article, as is the evidence for involvement of an endogenous human beta-retrovirus, HERV-K. Modes of interaction are also reviewed and linkages to the APOBEC3 family are suggested.
Most viruses express one or several proteins that counter the antiviral defences of the host cell. This is the task of non-structural protein NS1 in influenza viruses. Absent in the viral particle, but highly expressed in the infected cell, NS1 dramatically inhibits cellular gene expression and prevents the activation of key players in the IFN system. In addition, NS1 selectively enhances the translation of viral mRNAs and may regulate the synthesis of viral RNAs. Our knowledge of the virus and of NS1 has increased dramatically during the last 15 years. The atomic structure of NS1 has been determined, many cellular partners have been identified and its multiple activities have been studied in depth. This review presents our current knowledge, and attempts to establish relationships between the RNA sequence, the structure of the protein, its ligands, its activities and the pathogenicity of the virus. A better understanding of NS1 could help in elaborating novel antiviral strategies, based on either live vaccines with altered NS1 or on small-compound inhibitors of NS1.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
He, L., Jiang, K., Wu, Q., Duan, Z., Xu, H., Liu, J., Cui, Z., Gu, M., Wang, X., Liu, X., Liu, X.
The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus spread across the globe and caused the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. Many of the molecular factors that contributed to the airborne transmission of this pandemic virus have been determined; however, the direct-contact transmission of this virus remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that a combination of two mutations (N159D and Q226R) in the haemagglutinin (HA) protein of the representative 2009 H1N1 influenza virus A/California/04/2009 (CA04) caused a switch in receptor binding preference from the α2,6-sialoglycan to the α2,3-sialoglycan receptor, and decreased the binding intensities for both glycans. In conjunction with a significantly decreased replication efficiency in the nasal epithelium, this limited human receptor binding affinity resulted in inefficient direct-contact transmission of CA04 between guinea pigs. Our findings highlight the role of the HA gene in the transmission of the influenza virus.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
Lorusso, A., Ciacci-Zanella, J. R., Zanella, E. L., Pena, L., Perez, D. R., Lager, K. M., Rajao, D. S., Loving, C. L., Kitikoon, P., Vincent, A. L.
Interactions between the viral surface glycoprotein haemagglutinin (HA) and the corresponding receptors on host cells is one important aspect of influenza virus infection. Mutations in HA have been described to affect pathogenicity, antigenicity and the transmission of influenza viruses. Here, we detected polymorphisms present in HA genes of two pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) isolates, A/California/04/2009 (Ca/09) and A/Mexico/4108/2009 (Mx/09), that resulted in amino acid changes at positions 186 (S to P) and 194 (L to I) of the mature HA1 protein. Although not reported in the published H1N1pdm09 consensus sequence, the P186 genotype was more readily detected in primary infected and contact-naïve pigs when inoculated with a heterogeneous mixed stock of Ca/09. Using reverse genetics, we engineered Ca/09 and Mx/09 genomes by introducing Ca/09 HA with two naturally occurring variants expressing S186/I194 (HA-S/I) and P186/L194 (HA-P/L), respectively. The Ca/09 HA with the combination of P186/L194 with either the Ca/09 or Mx/09 backbone resulted in higher and prolonged viral shedding in naïve pigs. This efficiency appeared to be more likely through an advantage in cell surface attachment rather than replication efficiency. Although these mutations occurred within the receptor-binding pocket and the Sb antigenic site, they did not affect serological cross-reactivity. Relative increases of P186 in publicly available sequences from swine H1N1pdm09 viruses supported the experimental data, indicating this amino acid substitution conferred an advantage in swine.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
He, B., Chang, H., Liu, Z., Huang, C., Liu, X., Zheng, D., Fang, F., Sun, B., Chen, Z.
Vaccination is the best measure to prevent influenza pandemics. Here, we studied the protective effect against heterologous influenza viruses, including A/reassortant/NYMC X-179A (pH1N1), A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004 (H5N1), A/Chicken/Jiangsu/7/2002 (H9N2) and A/Guizhou/54/89xA/PR/8/34 (A/Guizhou-X) (H3N2), in mice first vaccinated with a DNA vaccine of haemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA) of A/PR/8/34 (PR8) and then infected with the homologous virus. We showed that PR8 HA or NA vaccination both protected mice against a lethal dose of the homologous virus; PR8 HA or NA DNA vaccination and then PR8 infection in mice offered poor or excellent protection, respectively, against a second, heterologous influenza virus challenge. In addition, before the second heterologous influenza infection, the highest antibody level against nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix (M1 and M2) proteins was found in the PR8 NA-vaccinated and PR8-infected group. The level of induced cellular immunity against NP and M1 showed a trend consistent with that seen in antibody levels. However, PR8 HA+NA vaccination and then PR8 infection resulted in limited protection against heterologous influenza virus challenge. Results of the present study demonstrated that infection of the homologous influenza virus in mice already immunized with a NA vaccine could provide excellent protection against subsequent infection of a heterologous influenza virus. These findings suggested that NA, a major antigen of influenza virus, could be an important candidate antigen for universal influenza vaccines.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
Wichgers Schreur, P. J., Oreshkova, N., Harders, F., Bossers, A., Moormann, R. J. M., Kortekaas, J.
Replicon-particle-based vaccines combine the efficacy of live-attenuated vaccines with the safety of inactivated or subunit vaccines. Recently, we developed Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) replicon particles, also known as nonspreading RVFV (NSR), and demonstrated that a single vaccination with these particles can confer sterile immunity in target animals. NSR particles can be produced by transfection of replicon cells, which stably maintain replicating RVFV S and L genome segments, with an expression plasmid encoding the RVFV glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, normally encoded by the M-genome segment. Here, we explored the possibility to produce NSR with the use of a helper virus. We show that replicon cells infected with a Newcastle disease virus expressing Gn and Gc (NDV-GnGc) were able to produce high levels of NSR particles. In addition, using reverse genetics and site-directed mutagenesis, we were able to create an NDV-GnGc variant that lacks the NDV fusion protein and contains two amino acid substitutions in, respectively, Gn and HN. The resulting virus uses a unique entry pathway that facilitates the efficient production of NSR in a one-component system. The novel system provides a promising alternative for transfection-based NSR production.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
Forrest, S., Lear, Z., Herod, M. R., Ryan, M., Rowlands, D. J., Stonehouse, N. J.
We have previously documented the inhibitory activity of RNA aptamers to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of foot-and-mouth disease virus (3Dpol). Here we report their modification and use with a subgenomic replicon incorporating GFP (pGFP-PAC replicon), allowing replication to be monitored and quantified in real-time. GFP expression in transfected BHK-21 cells reached a maximum at approximately 8 h post-transfection, at which time change in morphology of the cells was consistent with a virus-induced cytopathic effect. However, transfection of replicon-bearing cells with a 3Dpol aptamer RNA resulted in inhibition of GFP expression and maintenance of normal cell morphology, whereas a control aptamer RNA had little effect. The inhibition was correlated with a reduction in 3Dpol (detected by immunoblotting) and shown to be dose dependent. The 3Dpol aptamers appeared to be more effective than 2'-C-methylcytidine (2'CMC). Aptamers to components of the replication complex are therefore useful molecular tools for studying viral replication and also have potential as diagnostic molecules in the future.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
Matsuda, M., Suzuki, R., Kataoka, C., Watashi, K., Aizaki, H., Kato, N., Matsuura, Y., Suzuki, T., Wakita, T.
Previous studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters human hepatic cells through interaction with a series of cellular receptors, followed by clathrin-mediated, pH-dependent endocytosis. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of HCV entry into multiple HCV-permissive human hepatocyte-derived cells using trans-complemented HCV particles (HCVtcp). Knockdown of CD81 and claudin-1, or treatment with bafilomycin A1, reduced infection in Huh-7 and Huh7.5.1 cells, suggesting that HCV entered both cell types via receptor-mediated, pH-dependent endocytosis. Interestingly, knockdown of the clathrin heavy chain or dynamin-2 (Dyn2), as well as expression of the dominant-negative form of Dyn2, reduced infection of Huh-7 cells with HCVtcp, whereas infectious entry of HCVtcp into Huh7.5.1 cells was not impaired. Infection of Huh7.5.1 cells with culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) via a clathrin-independent pathway was also observed. Knockdown of caveolin-1, ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6), flotillin, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and the PAK1 effector C-terminal binding protein 1 of E1A had no inhibitory effects on HCVtcp infection into Huh7.5.1 cells, thus suggesting that the infectious entry pathway of HCV into Huh7.5.1 cells was not caveolae-mediated, or Arf6- and flotillin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis, but rather may have occurred via an undefined endocytic pathway. Further analysis revealed that HCV entry was clathrin- and dynamin-dependent in ORL8c and HepCD81/miR122 cells, but productive entry of HCV was clathrin- and dynamin-independent in Hep3B/miR122 cells. Collectively, these data indicated that HCV entered different target cells through different entry routes.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
Huerta, V., Toledo, P., Fleitas, N., Martin, A., Pupo, D., Yero, A., Sarria, M., Sanchez, A., Besada, V., Ramos, Y., Marquez, G., Guirola, O., Chinea, G.
Based on the hypothesis that interactions between virions and serum components may influence the outcome of dengue virus (DENV) infections, we decided to use affinity chromatography with domain III from the envelope (E) protein of DENV2 (DIIIE2) as a ligand to isolate virus-binding proteins from human plasma. This approach yielded serum amyloid P (SAP) and α2-macroglobulin (α2M) as novel viral interactors. After confirming the specific binding of both SAP and α2M to DIIIE2 by ELISA, the latter interaction was examined in greater detail. We obtain evidence suggesting that the binding species was actually the receptor-activated form of α2M (α2M*), that α2M* could bind monovalently to recombinant domain III from all four DENV serotypes with affinities in the micromolar range ranking as DENV4>DENV1~DENV2>DENV3 and that this interaction exhibited a strong avidity effect when multivalent binding was favoured (KD 8x10–8 M for DIIIE2). We also showed that α2M* bound to DENV virions of the four serotypes, protecting the virus from temperature-induced inactivation in the absence of serum and enhancing infectivity. The latter effect exhibited an ED50 of 2.9x10–8 M, also suggesting an avidity effect due to multivalent binding. These results will further contribute to the characterization of the virus–host factor interaction network during human DENV infection.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
Oshiro, Y., Yasue, H., Takahashi, K., Hattori, S., Ideno, S., Urayama, T., Chiba, M., Osari, S., Naito, T., Takeuchi, K., Nagata, K., Ohkohchi, N.
The aim of this study was to investigate the infection and replication of swine-derived hepatitis E virus (HEV) in primary cultured human hepatocytes (PHCs). Hepatocytes were cultured from the resected normal livers of patients with metastatic tumours. These cultured hepatocytes were infected with swine-derived genotype 3 or 4 HEV. Viral replication was monitored using reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR. The amount of HEV RNA increased in the culture media and cells following infection. Immunofluorescence staining implied that the spread of HEV infection in hepatocytes was attributed mainly to cell-to-cell transmission via the cell membrane. The sequences of the inoculated and propagated HEV were determined to examine whether sequence variation occurred during infection. Sequence analysis showed that there were no differences between inoculated and propagated HEV, demonstrating that in vitro infection and replication of swine HEV in PHCs occurred without sequence variation.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
Albulescu, I. C., Tas, A., Scholte, F. E. M., Snijder, E. J., van Hemert, M. J.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes severe persistent arthralgia. To better understand the molecular details of CHIKV RNA synthesis and the mode of action of inhibitors, we have developed an in vitro assay to study CHIKV replication/transcription complexes isolated from infected cells. In this assay 32P-CTP was incorporated into the CHIKV genome, subgenomic (sg) RNA and into a ~7.5 kb positive-stranded RNA, termed RNA II. We mapped RNA II, which was also found in CHIKV-infected cells, to the 5' end of the genome up to the start of the sgRNA promoter region. Most of the RNA-synthesizing activity, negative-stranded RNA and a relatively large proportion of nsP1 and nsP4 were recovered from a crude membrane fraction obtained by pelleting at 15 000 g. Positive-stranded RNA was mainly found in the cytosolic S15 fraction, suggesting it was released from the membrane-associated replication/transcription complexes (RTCs). The newly synthesized RNA was relatively stable and remained protected from cellular nucleases, possibly by encapsidation. A set of compounds that inhibit CHIKV replication in cell culture was tested in the in vitro RTC assay. In contrast to 3'dNTPs, chain terminators that acted as potent inhibitors of RTC activity, ribavirin triphosphate and 6-aza-UTP did not affect the RNA-synthesizing activity in vitro. In conclusion, this in vitro assay for CHIKV RNA synthesis is a useful tool for mechanistic studies on the RTC and mode of action studies on compounds with anti-CHIKV activity.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
Lin, Z., Liang, W., Kang, K., Li, H., Cao, Z., Zhang, Y.
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) has a tropism for vascular endothelial cells and immune system cells. The process and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β and IL-18, is one of the fundamental reactions of the innate immune response to viral infection. In this study, we investigated the production of IL-1β from macrophages following CSFV infection. Our results showed that IL-1β was upregulated after CSFV infection through activating caspase-1. Subsequent studies demonstrated that reactive oxygen species may not be involved in CSFV-mediated IL-1β release. Recently, research has indicated a novel mechanism by which inflammasomes are triggered through detection of activity of viroporin. We further demonstrated that CSFV viroporin p7 protein induced IL-1β secretion which could be inhibited by the ion channel blocker amantadine and also discovered that p7 protein was a short-lived protein degraded by the proteasome. Together, our observations provided an insight into the mechanism of CSFV-induced inflammatory responses.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
Zhang, Q., Liu, Q., Liu, S., Yang, H., Liu, S., Zhu, L., Yang, B., Jin, J., Ding, L., Wang, X., Liang, Y., Wang, Q., Huang, J.
A new nodavirus, named covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV), is associated with covert mortality disease of shrimp which has caused serious loss in China since 2009. Histopathological examination of shrimp suffering the disease revealed coagulative necrosis of striated muscle similar to typical histopathology features of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). However, shrimp suffering this disease tested negative for IMNV, MrNV and PvNV by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Additionally, eosinophilic inclusions were found in epithelium of the tubules in the hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ, and mass karyopyknotic nuclei existed in the muscle and lymphoid organ. The tubular epithelium of the hepatopancreas showed significant atrophy. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA of infected shrimp. Sequencing and alignment analysis showed that one clone with an 1185 bp insert (designated CMNV-7) shared 54 , 53 and 39 % identity with the amino acid sequences of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Flock House virus, black beetle virus and MrNV. The results of fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the hepatopancreas, striated muscle and lymphoid organ were positively reacting tissues. The mean size of negative-stained virus particles was 32 nm. In addition, a nested RT-PCR assay was developed for CMNV, and the RT-PCR detection results revealed that Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Litopenaeus vannamei and Marsupenaeus japonicus suffering from this disease were CMNV-positive.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
Wang, L., Sun, Y., Du, T., Wang, C., Xiao, S., Mu, Y., Zhang, G., Liu, L., Widen, F., Hsu, W. H., Zhao, Q., Zhou, E.-M.
The antigenic domains located in the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid protein have been characterized. This region shares common epitopes with swine and human HEVs. However, epitopes in the N-terminal 338 amino acid residues have never been reported. In this study, an antigenic domain located between amino acids 23 and 85 was identified by indirect ELISA using the truncated recombinant capsid proteins as coating antigens and anti-avian HEV chicken sera as primary antibodies. In addition, this domain did not react with anti-swine and human HEV sera. These results indicated that the N-terminal 338 amino acid residues of avian HEV capsid protein do not share common epitopes with swine and human HEVs. This finding is important for our understanding of the antigenicity of the avian HEV capsid protein. Furthermore, it has important implications in the selection of viral antigens for serological diagnosis.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
Song, C., Liao, Y., Gao, W., Yu, S., Sun, Y., Qiu, X., Tan, L., Cheng, A., Wang, M., Ma, Z., Ding, C.
Previous studies of duck hepatitis A virus infection have focused only on the pathogenicity and host response of one strain. Here, we show that the virulent SH strain and the attenuated FC64 strain induced varied pathogenicity, apoptosis and immune responses in the livers of 1-day-old ducklings. SH infection caused apoptosis and visible lesions in the liver; serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, -glutamyltransferase and total bilirubin activities were markedly upregulated; and ducklings died at 36 h post-infection (p.i.). However, FC64 infection did not induce significant symptoms or impair liver function, and all of the infected ducklings remained healthy. In addition, both virus strains replicated well in the liver, spleen and intestine, whilst the SH strain replicated more efficiently than FC64. IFN-, IL-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide were strongly induced by SH infection, and may be associated with the pathogenicity of the SH strain. IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-stimulated transmembrane protein 1, IFN-stimulated gene 12, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase-like and IL-6 were moderately induced by SH infection at 24 h p.i., and dramatically induced by FC64 infection at 36 h p.i. The intensive induction of cytokines by FC64 may be involved in restriction of virus replication and stimulation of adaptive immune responses. Ducklings inoculated with FC64 produced high levels of antiviral antibodies within 45 days p.i. The low virulence and strong immune response of FC64 rendered this strain a good vaccine candidate, as confirmed by a protective assay in this study.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
My, P. V. T., Rabaa, M. A., Donato, C., Cowley, D., Phat, V. V., Dung, T. T. N., Anh, P. H., Vinh, H., Bryant, J. E., Kellam, P., Thwaites, G., Woolhouse, M. E. J., Kirkwood, C. D., Baker, S.
During a hospital-based diarrhoeal disease study conducted in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam from 2009 to 2010, we identified four symptomatic children infected with G26P rotavirus (RV) – an atypical variant that has not previously been reported in human gastroenteritis. To determine the genetic structure and investigate the origin of this G26P strain, the whole genome of a representative example was characterized, revealing a novel genome constellation: G26–P–I5–R1–C1–M1–A8–N1–T1–E1–H1. The genome segments were most closely related to porcine (VP7, VP4, VP6 and NSP1) and Wa-like porcine RVs (VP1–3 and NSP2–5). We proposed that this G26P strain was the product of zoonotic transmission coupled with one or more reassortment events occurring in human and/or animal reservoirs. The identification of such strains has potential implications for vaccine efficacy in south-east Asia, and outlines the utility of whole-genome sequencing for studying RV diversity and zoonotic potential during disease surveillance.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
Sachsenroder, J., Braun, A., Machnowska, P., Ng, T. F. F., Deng, X., Guenther, S., Bernstein, S., Ulrich, R. G., Delwart, E., Johne, R.
Rats are known as reservoirs and vectors for several zoonotic pathogens. However, information on the viruses shed by urban wild rats that could pose a zoonotic risk to human health is scare. Here, intestinal contents from 20 wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) collected in the city of Berlin, Germany, were subjected to metagenomic analysis of viral nucleic acids. The determined faecal viromes of rats consisted of a variety of known and unknown viruses, and were highly variable among the individuals. Members of the families Parvoviridae and Picobirnaviridae represented the most abundant species. Novel picornaviruses, bocaviruses, sapoviruses and stool-associated circular ssDNA viruses were identified, which showed only low sequence identity to known representatives of the corresponding taxa. In addition, noroviruses and rotaviruses were detected as potential zoonotic gastroenteritis viruses. However, partial-genome sequence analyses indicated that the norovirus was closely related to the recently identified rat norovirus and the rotavirus B was closely related to the rat rotavirus strain IDIR; both viruses clustered separately from respective human virus strains in phylogenetic trees. In contrast, the rotavirus A sequences showed high identity to human and animal strains. Analysis of the nearly complete genome of this virus revealed the known genotypes G3, P and N2 for three of the genome segments, whereas the remaining eight genome segments represented the novel genotypes I20–R11–C11–M10–A22–T14–E18–H13. Our results indicated a high heterogeneity of enteric viruses present in urban wild rats; their ability to be transmitted to humans remains to be assessed in the future.
ANIMAL: DNA VIRUSES
Trewby, H., Ayele, G., Borzacchiello, G., Brandt, S., Campo, M. S., Del Fava, C., Marais, J., Leonardi, L., Vanselow, B., Biek, R., Nasir, L.
Papillomaviruses are a family of slowly evolving DNA viruses and their evolution is commonly linked to that of their host species. However, whilst bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) primarily causes warts in its natural host, the cow, it can also cause locally aggressive and invasive skin tumours in equids, known as sarcoids, and thus provides a rare contemporary example of cross-species transmission of a papillomavirus. Here, we describe the first phylogenetic analysis of BPV-1 in equine sarcoids to our knowledge, allowing us to explore the evolutionary history of BPV-1 and investigate its cross-species association with equids. A phylogenetic analysis of the BPV-1 transcriptional promoter region (the long control region or LCR) was conducted on 15 bovine and 116 equine samples from four continents. Incorporating previous estimates for evolutionary rates in papillomavirus implied that the genetic diversity in the LCR variants was ancient and predated domestication of both equids and cattle. The phylogeny demonstrated geographical segregation into an ancestral group (African, South American and Australian samples), and a more recently derived, largely European clade. Whilst our data are consistent with BPV-1 originating in cattle, we found evidence of multiple, probably relatively recent, cross-species transmission events into horses. We also demonstrated the high prevalence of one particular sequence variant (variant 20), and suggest this may indicate that this variant shows a fitness advantage in equids. Although strong host specificity remains the norm in papillomaviruses, our results demonstrate that exceptions to this rule exist and can become epidemiologically relevant.
ANIMAL: DNA VIRUSES
Veyer, D. L., Maluquer de Motes, C., Sumner, R. P., Ludwig, L., Johnson, B. F., Smith, G. L.
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large dsDNA virus encoding ~200 proteins, several of which inhibit apoptosis. Here, a comparative study of anti-apoptotic proteins N1, F1, B13 and Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) in isolation and during viral infection is presented. VACVs strains engineered to lack each gene separately still blocked apoptosis to some degree because of functional redundancy provided by the other anti-apoptotic proteins. To overcome this redundancy, we inserted each gene separately into a VACV strain (vv811) that lacked all these anti-apoptotic proteins and that induced apoptosis efficiently during infection. Each protein was also expressed in cells using lentivirus vectors. In isolation, each VACV protein showed anti-apoptotic activity in response to specific stimuli, as measured by immunoblotting for cleaved poly(ADP ribose) polymerase-1 and caspase-3 activation. Of the proteins tested, B13 was the most potent inhibitor, blocking both intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli, whilst the activity of the other proteins was largely restricted to inhibition of intrinsic stimuli. In addition, B13 and F1 were effective blockers of apoptosis induced by vv811 infection. Finally, whilst differences in induction of apoptosis were barely detectable during infection with VACV strain Western Reserve compared with derivative viruses lacking individual anti-apoptotic genes, several of these proteins reduced activation of caspase-3 during infection by vv811 strains expressing these proteins. These results illustrated that vv811 was a useful tool to determine the role of VACV proteins during infection and that whilst all of these proteins have some anti-apoptotic activity, B13 was the most potent.
ANIMAL: DNA VIRUSES
Kawabata, A., Serada, S., Naka, T., Mori, Y.
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) glycoprotein M (gM) is an envelope glycoprotein that associates with glycoprotein N (gN), forming the gM/gN protein complex, in a similar manner to the other herpesviruses. Liquid chromatography-MS/MS analysis showed that the HHV-6 gM/gN complex interacts with the v-SNARE protein, vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP3). VAMP3 colocalized with the gM/gN complex at the trans-Golgi network and other compartments, possibly the late endosome in HHV-6-infected cells, and its expression gradually increased during the late phase of virus infection. Finally, VAMP3 was incorporated into mature virions and may be transported with the gM/gN complex.
Beach, L. B., Rawson, J. M., Kim, B., Patterson, S. E., Mansky, L. M.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infects about two million people worldwide. HIV-2 has fewer treatment options than HIV-1, yet may evolve drug resistance more quickly. We have analysed several novel drugs for anti-HIV-2 activity. It was observed that 5-azacytidine, clofarabine, gemcitabine and resveratrol have potent anti-HIV-2 activity. The EC50 values for 5-azacytidine, clofarabine and resveratrol were found to be significantly lower with HIV-2 than with HIV-1. A time-of-addition assay was used to analyse the ability of these drugs to interfere with HIV-2 replication. Reverse transcription was the likely target for antiretroviral activity. Taken together, several novel drugs have been discovered to have activity against HIV-2. Based upon their known activities, these drugs may elicit enhanced HIV-2 mutagenesis and therefore be useful for inducing HIV-2 lethal mutagenesis. In addition, the data are consistent with HIV-2 reverse transcriptase being more sensitive than HIV-1 reverse transcriptase to dNTP pool alterations.
Strickland, S. L., Rife, B. D., Lamers, S. L., Nolan, D. J., Veras, N. M. C., Prosperi, M. C. F., Burdo, T. H., Autissier, P., Nowlin, B., Goodenow, M. M., Suchard, M. A., Williams, K. C., Salemi, M.
Despite the success of combined antiretroviral therapy in controlling viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, commonly referred to as neuroAIDS, remain a frequent and poorly understood complication. Infection of CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted rhesus macaques with the SIVmac251 viral swarm is a well-established rapid disease model of neuroAIDS that has provided critical insight into HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder onset and progression. However, no studies so far have characterized in depth the relationship between intra-host viral evolution and pathogenesis in this model. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) env gp120 sequences were obtained from six infected animals. Sequences were sampled longitudinally from several lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, including individual lobes within the brain at necropsy, for four macaques; two animals were sacrificed at 21 days post-infection (p.i.) to evaluate early viral seeding of the brain. Bayesian phylodynamic and phylogeographic analyses of the sequence data were used to ascertain viral population dynamics and gene flow between peripheral and brain tissues, respectively. A steady increase in viral effective population size, with a peak occurring at ~50–80 days p.i., was observed across all longitudinally monitored macaques. Phylogeographic analysis indicated continual viral seeding of the brain from several peripheral tissues throughout infection, with the last migration event before terminal illness occurring in all macaques from cells within the bone marrow. The results strongly supported the role of infected bone marrow cells in HIV/SIV neuropathogenesis. In addition, our work demonstrated the applicability of Bayesian phylogeography to intra-host studies in order to assess the interplay between viral evolution and pathogenesis.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
Kenney, J. L., Solberg, O. D., Langevin, S. A., Brault, A. C.
In the past decade, there has been an upsurge in the number of newly described insect-specific flaviviruses isolated pan-globally. We recently described the isolation of a novel flavivirus (tentatively designated ‘Nhumirim virus’; NHUV) that represents an example of a unique subset of apparently insect-specific viruses that phylogenetically affiliate with dual-host mosquito-borne flaviviruses despite appearing to be limited to replication in mosquito cells. We characterized the in vitro growth potential and 3' untranslated region (UTR) sequence homology with alternative flaviviruses, and evaluated the virus’s capacity to suppress replication of representative Culex spp.-vectored pathogenic flaviviruses in mosquito cells. Only mosquito cell lines were found to support NHUV replication, further reinforcing the insect-specific phenotype of this virus. Analysis of the sequence and predicted RNA secondary structures of the 3' UTR indicated NHUV to be most similar to viruses within the yellow fever serogroup and Japanese encephalitis serogroup, and viruses in the tick-borne flavivirus clade. NHUV was found to share the fewest conserved sequence elements when compared with traditional insect-specific flaviviruses. This suggests that, despite apparently being insect specific, this virus probably diverged from an ancestral mosquito-borne flavivirus. Co-infection experiments indicated that prior or concurrent infection of mosquito cells with NHUV resulted in a significant reduction in virus production of West Nile virus (WNV), St Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus. The inhibitory effect was most effective against WNV and SLEV with over a 106-fold and 104-fold reduction in peak titres, respectively.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
Liu, S., Vijayendran, D., Carrillo-Tripp, J., Miller, W. A., Bonning, B. C.
Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV; family Dicistroviridae) was first isolated from the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi. ALPV-like virus sequences have been reported from many insects and insect predators. We identified a new isolate of ALPV (ALPV-AP) from the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and a new isolate (ALPV-DvV) from western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. ALPV-AP has an ssRNA genome of 9940 nt. Based on phylogenetic analysis, ALPV-AP was closely related to ALPV-AM, an ALPV isolate from honeybees, Apis mellifera, in Spain and Brookings, SD, USA. The distinct evolutionary branches suggested the existence of two lineages of the ALPV virus. One consisted of ALPV-AP and ALPV-AM, whilst all other isolates of ALPV grouped into the other lineage. The similarity of ALPV-AP and ALPV-AM was up to 88 % at the RNA level, compared with 78–79 % between ALPV-AP and other ALPV isolates. The sequence identity of proteins between ALPV-AP and ALPV-AM was 98–99 % for both ORF1 and ORF2, whilst only 85–87 % for ORF1 and 91–92 % for ORF2 between ALPV-AP and other ALPV isolates. Sequencing of RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) products and cDNA clones of the virus genome revealed sequence variation in the 5' UTRs and in ORF1, indicating that ALPV may be under strong selection pressure, which could have important biological implications for ALPV host range and infectivity. Our results indicated that ALPV-like viruses infect insects in the order Coleoptera, in addition to the orders Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, and we propose that ALPV isolates be classified as two separate viral species.
ANIMAL: DNA VIRUSES
Yin, F., Wang, M., Tan, Y., Deng, F., Vlak, J. M., Hu, Z., Wang, H.
The major envelope fusion protein F of the budded virus of baculoviruses consists of two disulfide-linked subunits: an N-terminal F2 subunit and a C-terminal, membrane-anchored F1 subunit. There is one cysteine in F2 and there are 15 cysteines in F1, but their role in disulfide linking is largely unknown. In this study, the inter- and intra-subunit disulfide bonds of the Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) F protein were analysed by site-directed mutagenesis. Results indicated that in a functional F protein, an inter-subunit disulfide bond exists between amino acids C108 (F2) and C241 (F1). When C241 was mutated, an alternative disulfide bond was formed between C108 and C232, rendering F non-functional. No inter-subunit bridge was observed in a double C232/C241 mutant of F1. C403 was not involved in the formation of inter-subunit disulfide bonding, but mutation of this amino acid decreased viral infectivity significantly, suggesting that it might be involved in intra-subunit disulfide bonds. The influence of reductant [tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP)] and free-thiol inhibitors [4-acetamido-4'-maleimidylstilbene 2,2'-disulfonic acid (AMS) and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB)] on the infectivity of HearNPV was tested. The results indicated that TCEP greatly decreased the infection of HzAm1 cells by HearNPV. In contrast, AMS and DTNB had no inhibitory effect on viral infectivity. The data suggested that free thiol/disulfide isomerization was not likely to play a role in viral entry and infectivity.
ANIMAL: RNA VIRUSES
Lukhovitskaya, N. I., Vetukuri, R. R., Sama, I., Thaduri, S., Solovyev, A. G., Savenkov, E. I.
Viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) are critical for the success of virus infection and efficient accumulation of virus progeny. The chrysanthemum virus B p12 protein acts as a transcription factor to regulate cell size and proliferation favourable for virus infection. Here, we showed that the p12 protein suppressed RNA silencing and was able to complement a VSR-deficient unrelated virus. Moreover, p12 counter-silencing activity could be uncoupled from its function as a transcription factor in the nucleus. The altered p12 protein, which lacked a nuclear localization signal and was not imported into the nucleus, was able to suppress RNA silencing as efficiently as the native protein. The data revealed new aspects of p12 functioning and identified a novel role for this viral zinc-finger transcription factor. The results provided a general insight into one of the activities of the p12 protein, which appeared to possess more than one function.
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